Wednesday, June 13, 2018

In which population genetics debunked Aryan Migration Theory and reinstated Aryan Invasion Theory

According to the study, The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia, Indians are a hybrid group of;
1. Dravidians
2. Indus Valley People
3. Indo-Aryans

The Indus Valley people were a mix of Dravidians and Elamites.
Indo-Aryans were a mix of Europeans and Elamites.

There were two distinct groups.
1. Ancient North Indian: Mix of Indo-Aryans and Indus Valley people
2. Ancient South Indian: Mix of Dravidians and Indus Valley people

These two groups later mixed at a varying degree to form the present day Indians.

Interestingly, the major percentage (70-99%) of Indian genome belongs to Dravidians and Indus Valley people.

This again gives credence to the Aryan Invasion Theory where predominantly male Central Asian people, invaded and ruled over the local population spreading their culture and language. The female lineage(mtDNA haplogroup) is predominantly Dravidian and Elamite.

Friday, March 23, 2018

Indian Astronomy

The traditional Indian knowledge was aware of the planets like Mercury(Budha), Venus(Shukra), Mars(Mangala), Jupiter(Guru) and Saturn(Shani). I wonder whether we can identify if that's a self-developed or borrowed discovery.

The traditional Indian Astrology adds two additional planets Rahu and Ketu to this set. I think that shows it was not an autochthonous idea. If it was then they would have known how those planets were identified in the first place (like the Greeks did). And if they knew the systematic study that went behind it, they wouldn't have taken the poetic liberty to add two additional planets, unless of course, if one considers Astrology is some kind fantasy poem.

Position of Tulu Language - V

For whatever its worth;

While the NeighborNet network clearly distinguishes three groups, reticulate signal is evident for Tulu, which is located on the edge of the South I subgroup and shows some affinity with Brahui, and Telugu and Koya. 

I've previously argued that Tulu was influenced by Telugu or SD-II languages.

A Bayesian Phylogenetic study of the Dravidian Language Family, Kolipakam et al. (2018)

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Gender neutral language

The other day, I was listening to a ghazal. I observed that both lover and lovee were males. I searched for articles on this. One view on this was that the intention was to make the poem universal and hence it's not masculine but gender neutral. So we should view them from gender neutral perspective and not from homosexuality angle. The other view was that, homosexuality was never a sin in Indian society hence poets wrote freely about their homosexual love. We can't view them from post-British anti-homosexual angle.

I'm in no place to analyze them, nevertheless, I'm interested in gender neutral language. I suppose not just in poems, we need gender neutral language in many places. Our attempt to achieve it, using he or she or singular they, looks very clumsy. The gendered language itself was an innovation in our speech once declensions started appearing (and sometimes disappearing at a later time). These innovations introduced new terms or affixes to the language. But what we are trying to do is to use the existing terms and try to give it a dual meaning or elaborating them. Why is it impossible to come up with new animate terms for gender neutral language? The gender neutral language might have started as a correction to patriarchy but now the lack of it looks more like a limitation.

Monday, December 11, 2017

Rise of Patriarchy - Sustenance

I wonder if there is a term for the people who instead of blaming the social situation for their victim status, in fact claim that that situation doesn't exist in the society that's why they are victims.

The other day, I heard a person complaining, if patriarchy had existed in the society then men also had the option of staying at home and becoming homemakers!

This person also had the opinion that machoism doesn't exist in the society and if it exists only a small percentage of families actually show it (basically, his definition of machoism is overt physical aggression).

This person also had the opinion that marriage is a curse for men as they can't get sex anywhere else but a boon for women.

Even though I initially wanted to tackle this case in the post from an angle how people misunderstood patriarchy, I couldn't overlook the fact that many of them have internalized the prejudices.

The first one on the list, ie., men becoming homemaker, is probably the only thing where his expectation was correct. But what he said was basically the definition of patriarchy. Everything is gendered and woman is considered lower and a man, wanted to take up a role defined as feminine in patriarchal terms, is viewed as effeminate. Basically, here an individual is a victim of patriarchy but this guy has turned the meaning on its head.

In the second case, ie., machoism, the lack of physical aggression among many middle class Indian families is taken as a common phenomenon. But India is still a brutal place for women in general and men who go beyond socially accepted norms.  In fact, when it comes to women I suppose even developed countries aren't far ahead of us. There are too many microaggressions from privileged castes and classes. His male and privileged self might have escaped any such hostility but that's just a privilege blindness.

The sexual repression is an unpleasant experience for many Indian men. But I believe that could be the situation with women too. However, privileged men by heredity in olden times had no problem with this as the patriarchal rules always accepted their sexual indiscretions in different terminologies. Also, in olden times as people married in their childhood(or immediately after puberty), they never had to face the long period of sexual abstinence that the present generations of Indians have to face. So basically sexual repression is a new phenomenon in the last 50-100 years as we moved away from child marriages but didn't completely adopt the concept of sex without marriage in our society. But I suppose this is a transition period. But the way he considers it as a male only phenomenon shows a complete lack of appreciation for female sexuality and also a dream of playboy sexuality without any responsibility but only entitlement(this has given rise to many feudal liberals).

Basically, I could summarize that his sense of victimhood is built upon;
- Misunderstanding of patriarchy
- Male and caste privilege blindness
- Prejudice with female sexuality 

You can rebel against the existing social norms if you are clear about the reasons behind it. But what happens in this case? I believe people who themselves are victims become inhuman about others' plight (this guy is a libertarian) is because of this reason. Instead of bringing down the phenomenon that made them victim, they are rooting for it. And these are above average people. Nobody can explain them anything.

Thursday, November 30, 2017

True Capitalist Society - V

There is something inhuman about libertarian economics.Today, I was told MGNREGA scheme increased inflation. There could be many drawbacks of MGNREGA scheme. But the way fans of libertarian economics view it, is completely distasteful. However, I'm not sure whether they really understand what libertarian economists like Milton Friedman wanted to convey.

I checked what Milton Friedman had to say on this. In this video (posted below), he mentions minimum pay rise for workers. He, in fact, maintains the minimum pay rise is justified as it is basically driven by inflation and not the cause of it. Now, let's compare those union workers with unorganized labourers who benefit from MGNREGA scheme.

It's obvious that the latter's economic situation is far worse than those of union workers. Let's say the price of commodities have increased in commensurate with their income. In the worst case, their economic condition is as good as it was before. But what about social conditions?

The barbaric landlords can't exploit them by paying very low wages to work in their fields. The barbaric real estate developers can't get the work done by giving only food. The barbaric families can't keep them as slave domestic help.

In India these social conditions matter. I would think MGNREGA is a much needed idea in a poor and feudal society like ours. What we need is efficient implementation. Even with its present 15% efficiency, we are curbing exploitation by that much amount. But the fans of libertarian economics have lost all their humanity and can't see social conditions. Did people like Milton Friedman ever think their fans would be bunch of barbarians?

Friday, November 03, 2017

Rationale for Caste Reservations

I heard this story when I was young. There were openings in a bank and many girls from a college appeared for the test and the interview. To the utter surprise of many, one girl not particularly considered bright or even average got the job whereas some of her smarter friends didn't. Few people in the college inquired about it. From the bank insiders they came to know that, the girl came from a Brahmin family which recently lost their lands because of land reforms and were in dire condition financially. So, some people influenced on her behalf(as banking along with most of the other sectors were dominated by Brahmins). The story ended with a sarcastic remark that some of the girls that lost out came anyway from dirt poor families and since they were traditionally poor, they wouldn't feel the pain unlike this nouveau pavre girl.

The story can't be verified. However, I wonder whether there is any truth in the impression that people observe poverty in groups that are traditionally prosperous and wealth in groups that are traditionally poor.

For many years, I keep hearing from many Malayali non-Brahmins, how Brahmins in Kerala lost out:  they didn't take up British education quickly unlike other Brahmins; they weren't smart enough to control their landholdings when they had the maximum landholding compared to any other caste etc... I've even watched a movie on their pitiable situation. There was a sexual exploitation news involving a Brahmin girl which again highlighted their sorry state of affairs in the media. All these made me wonder whether they were indeed an exception to the typical caste situation in other parts of India. But later I came across this study by K C Zachariah (Religious Denominations of Kerala, 2016).

These are the rankings from the study with regards to Hindu castes.

Working in government/semi government jobs proportionate to their population;
1. Brahmins
2. Nairs
3. OBC Hindus
4. Dalit Hindus

Educational attainment:
1. Brahmins
2. Nairs
3. OBC Hindus
4. Dalit Hindus

More importantly, ranking by prosperity(or least number of people living in poverty):
1. Brahmins
2. Nairs
3. OBC Hindus
4. Dalit Hindus

The caste hierarchy structure is still reflected in these rankings after all the social justice measures (including reservations and land reforms).

I don't think there is anything wrong in this. The idea behind social justice initiatives was that social and cultural capital would help the privileged castes and they would never go down. It has been proven correct in Kerala until now. Also, Kerala has the highest HDI, and none of the social justice measures (some of the oldest in India) seem to have adversely affected the society in general as all castes have moved up. Education and prosperity which used to be the monopoly of the privileged castes have been spread across. Even though ideal equality of the castes haven't been reached, the gap has been reduced considerably.

Now I wonder why non-Brahmin people still worry about Malayali Brahmins. In fact, they should be more bothered about their own people (most of these worrying people come from OBCs and Nair castes, so I don't think they have much consideration for Dalits). That makes me wonder whether an odd poor Brahmin invokes more sympathy not just for himself but for his whole caste because he himself was and is an anomaly. A rich Dalit getting benefits of the reservations sets tongues wagging, - even though, the caste altogether always struggle to fill their justified proportion in education or job- because a rich Dalit is an anomaly. Thus those individual cases are generalized for the whole Dalit castes.

Religious Denominations of Kerala, K C Zachariah

Monday, October 23, 2017

Tayi and Bayi

When I was going through the article on Swati Tirunal (see my previous post), what surprised me was the association of 'bai(bayi)' with the females of royal family. The term 'bai' is commonly found among Marathis. I guess the popularity or influence of the Maratha kingdom where the royal females had 'bai' attached to their name probably made this Malayali royal family to adopt the term as a honorific.

However, even though Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language, the root of 'bai' appears to be Dravidian (not a surprise as majority Marathis plausibly lapsed Dravidians). The term 'ayi' means she/mother. The masculine term is aya (Te: na+aayana -> my father). The masculine term for 'bai' is 'bua'/'bava'. I guess 'ua'/'ava' is more likely -ava/aya another Dravidian term for he/father.

In Kannada, aayi is mostly used in the formal term for mother, tayi -> tan (self) + aayi (mother). But what does the prefix 'ba' in Marathi mean? It doesn't seem Dravidian. Could it be some Indo-Aryan term meaning  self or my?

In Kannada and Telugu, the term 'bava' means cousin(male)/brother-in-law. What does the prefix 'ba' mean in Kannada and Telugu?

Sri in Malayalam and my great-great grandmother

Sri, the honorific addressing term in Sanskrit (equivalent to Mr/Ms in English), has its own forms in different Indian languages. In Tulu and Kannada, it's 'siri' though not used as a honorific (Sri is used instead), it's used in compound terms. In Tamil, it's 'tiru'. I was wondering about the equivalent in Malayalam.

My maternal great-great grandomother's -whose mtDNA and maternal lineage I carry- name was supposedly Chirudeyi (from an official record), where 'sri' is part of the compound name. However, her descendants remember her name as Chiridevi(Skt: Sridevi).

Now if I ask the Malayalis who speak the standard dialect they claim neither chiru nor deyi is part of Malayalam. I couldn't find any references online (where most of them use Sri).

One example I could refer was the name Swati Tirunal. Now, is that 'tiru' a Tamil import or part of Malayalam? If latter is the case, how about 'chiru'? If we consider my other relatives' pronunciation, chiri, which sounds closer to Tulu term 'siri' and the other part 'deyi' which is the same as Tulu equivalent of devi (devi -> deyi) then we can conclude that Malayalam 'tiru' became 'chiru' in region closer to Tulu. But my relatives use the Sanskrit term 'devi' instead. Unfortunately, I couldn't find Malayalm equivalent of 'devi'.

Random Thoughts - Love_Lust

If you go through this article then what strikes you strongly is that many of the asexual people are heteroamoural. It further reinforces the fact the feelings of love and lust are mutually exclusive.

So the present list includes:
Heterosexual-Heteroamoural -> Anna Karenina (Fictional, Anna Karenina), Max Weber
Heterosexual-Homoamoural -> Nick Carraway (Fictional, The Great Gatsby), Tom Daley
Heterosexual-Inamoural -> Emma Bovary (Fictional, Madame Bovary)
Homosexual-Homoamoural ->  Uncle Frank (Fictional, Little Miss Sunshine)
Homosexual-Heteroamoural -> Francis Bacon, Freddie Mercury, Chirlane McCray, Brandon Ambrosino
Homosexual-Inamoural -> ?
Asexual-Heteroamoural-> Emy, a French woman, Devi, Gill, Jon and Ian from UK
Asexual-Homoamoural -> ? 
Asexual-Inamoural -> ?